History of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia was founded in 1744 but its history when it comes to human characters, culture and way of life date back to over 20,000 years back. Some of its global impacts have been felt until the date and among them are is being the cradle of Islam in the 7th century. At this point, it also was made the capital of Islamic Rashidun Caliphate. As the mid-20th century approached, vast oil deposits were discovered in Saudi Arabia. This oil drilling activities have made the region see great improvement and development in its economy and the geopolitics that goes on.


At some point way back, the area existed in relative isolation and obscurity. In the 7th century and those that followed the cities such as Medina and Mecca were noticed to have the greatest spiritual significance when it came to the Muslim world. Mecca now became the destination for Hajj pilgrimage which is an obligation that is to be done at least one time in the entire life of a beginner. There are so many Muslims in Saudi Arabia and from recent statistics, over 95% of the citizens abide by the Islamic principles.


Saudi Arabia in the past has tribal rulers who controlled the area. The Saudi royal family which was mostly referred to as the Al Saud began as a minor tribal ruler in Najid which is in Central Arabia. The extent of Al Saud territory began fluctuating after about 150 years of ruling and somewhere between 1902 and 1927, the leader of Al Saud, Abdulaziz fronted several war conquests that lead to the creation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia which was in 1930.


Saud who was chosen to succeed Abdulaziz immediately began facing greater opposition from many of the people in the royal family and after he could it take it anymore, he decided to depose. He was replaced by another from the royal family who was called Faisal in 1964. He did not last long. Almost a year and was murdered by his nephew in 1975. Faisal saw the kingdom of Saudi Arabia grow and become modernized all because of the wealth gotten from oil drilling. There was an oil crisis in 1973 and Saudi Arabia had a role which saw a greater rise in the prices of oil. This in result increased the wealth and political significance greatly to almost what Saudi Arabia is at this point in time.

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Khalid succeeded Faisal and his reign was during the first sign of dissent where extremists in Islamic seized the Grand mosque and controlled it in 1979. In 1982, a king called Fahd took over and during his time, Saudi became the biggest producer of oil worldwide. The country took into war after joining hands with the US in the Gulf war which was in 1991 and in early 2000, there were several terrorist attacks. Abdullah took over in 2005 and brought about minor reforms that created modernity in the country. In 2015, Salman took over Saudi Arabia as its king to date.